It is always worth reconnecting with this great story from time to time: humans have been able to increase life expectancy dramatically in the last 150 years. It is not, of course, a one way proposition. Poor management, disease, bad luck, and war can have an effect - even in modern times: take South Africa as an example. This long-run analysis flatters some recent challenges. The United States, for example, is in a period where due to poor healthcare and high levels of violence life expectancy has stopped growing. New Zealand's life expectancy is great - and yet we could still save hundreds of lives every year if we could just improve our performance in five key areas to the levels that are typical in several other OECD countries. I suppose that is what makes this journey exciting: there is still so much more room for improvement.